Archaeological excavations made in order to East. research excavation of archaeological sites, mostly ancient tombs or the remains of ancient settlements. In the USSR the organization A. R. carry out specials. arcitecture. institutions (research institutes, archaeological departments of universities, museums, etc.). A. R. should only be performed by specialists-archaeologists on the basis of an “Open” document to the right of excavation issued by the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Sciences of the Union republics. Arcitecture. science developed a set of scientific. receptions At A. R. A. R. settlement excavations produced a large enough area (to accommodate common facilities), the layer (within layers – layers defined. thickness), square (for ease of fixing) all the way down to the bottom of the cultural layer. Mandatory clear documentation of the excavation (written, graphic, Photographic). When R. A. studied cultural layer (and in burials – burial mound and the fill of the burial pit), structures, finds and human and animal bones, plant remains, grains, etc.
Study of earth sediments and mounds is the archaeological. stratigraphy. Stratigraphic. observations allow us to answer questions about the order and relationship of layers and structures, their assigns. the date, time and size of encountered barriers or robberies of graves. When A. R. barrows mound is excavated for the demolition; A. R. pogrebenie tumulus excavations are often constructed areas, as with A. R. settlements. When R. A. is taking the necessary measures for the preservation of found things and leave without disassembling structures. In some cases samples are taken for analyses, paleobotanical, dendrochronological, radiocarbon, paleomagnetic, chemical, etc. (see Archeological Dating). The composition of the archaeological. expeditions often include soil scientists, geologists, zoologists, physicists, etc. A. R. produced by different tools (shovel, pickaxe, knives, lancets, brushes, etc.). Sometimes it is possible to A. R. burial mounds by digging machines. To delete viewed and released from the findings of the land used conveyors, lifts, bulldozers. Full disclosure of the investigated settlement provides for restoration of his past life, and the study of burials allows us to solve the issues of antropol. composition, ethnogenesis, personnel, ideology, and social structure. Open allow archaeologists to reconstruct the East. picture of the lives of many peoples in primitive communal, rabovladeltsa. and fiefdom.